Sea Surface Temperatures

Hadley Centre Observations

Researchers at the Met Office Hadley Centre produce and maintain a range of gridded datasets of meteorological variables for use in climate monitoring and climate modeling.

Hadley Centre HadGEM1

HadGEM1 stands for the Hadley Centre Global Environment Model version 1. It was developed in 2006 and used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.


The Community Climate System Model (CCSM) is a coupled climate model for simulating the earth's climate system. Composed of four separate models simultaneously simulating the earth's atmosphere, ocean, land surface and sea-ice, and one central coupler component, the CCSM allows researchers to conduct fundamental research into the earth's past, present and future climate states.

CCSM Versions:


Ozone Depleting Substance Scenarios

CCMVal (2007) REF1/REF2 Scenarios

Most GEOSCCM experiments use the ODS time series defined for use in CCMVal (2007), based on the Ab Scenario defined in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2000 (WMO, 2003).

No-Molina-Rowland Scenario (Velders et al., 2007)

This scenario is used in the "World-Avoided" experiments and assumes ODS production continued to grow at 3% per year, as if ODSs were never regulated.


Velders, G.J.M., Anderson, S.O., Daniel, J.S., Fahay, D.W., and McFarland, M.: The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104(12), 4814-4819,10.1073/pnas.0610328104,2007.

WMO (World Meteorological Organization), Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project - Report No. 47, 498pp.,Geneva, 2003.

Greenhouse Gas Scenarios

Scenario A1B

This scenario, from the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (IPCC, 2000) is used for most GEOSCCM experiments.

Scenario A2

GEOSCCM experiment P5 (Version 1) uses scenario A2 from IPC (2000).


IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) (2000), Special report on emissions scenarios: a special report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 599 pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K.